Fit­ness spe­cial­ist Natalya Varivo­da knows every­thing about quick weight loss tech­niques with the help of opti­mal sports activ­i­ties and prop­er nutri­tion.

The iron log­ic of sports med­i­cine and pre­cise math­e­mat­i­cal cal­cu­la­tions guar­an­tee a weight loss of 2 kg and a change in body vol­ume and con­tours with­in a month. The road to trans­for­ma­tion con­sists of only three steps: train­ing, nutri­tion, rest.

Training

1. How to train correctly?

The main prin­ci­ple: any train­ing load should be OPTIMAL.

That is, you should always give your­self a load that exceeds the usu­al and at the same time not exceed the adap­tive capa­bil­i­ties of your body.

2. How to determine the intensity of the load?

There are stan­dard for­mu­las for this. Spe­cial cas­es and excep­tions to these for­mu­las are dis­cussed sep­a­rate­ly with the per­son­al train­er. The start­ing point for the cal­cu­la­tion is your max­i­mum heart rate.

3. What is Pmax?

This is the “max­i­mum heart rate”, cal­cu­lat­ed as fol­lows: 220 minus your age.

4. What types of loads are there?

There are only two types of load: aer­o­bic and anaer­o­bic.

5. What is aerobic exercise?

Aer­o­bic load for begin­ners is at the lev­el of Pmax 65–75%, for expe­ri­enced ath­letes at the lev­el of 70–80%. It uses body fat as fuel.

Train­ing should last at least 40 min­utes, at least 2 times a week.

If you have just start­ed exer­cis­ing, you need aer­o­bic exer­cise to pre­pare your body for more dif­fi­cult ones.

6. How to calculate your heart rate range for aerobic exercise?

To more accu­rate­ly deter­mine the pulse range, Pmax and rest­ing pulse are tak­en into account, which is mea­sured in the morn­ing, before get­ting out of bed, for ten sec­onds, by plac­ing the fin­ger­tips of the right hand to the wrist of the left hand under the thumb. Next, mul­ti­ply the result­ing num­ber by 6 and fol­low the for­mu­la:

(Rmax — rest­ing heart rate) x 0.65 + rest­ing heart rate (65% of Rmax)

This is the low­er lim­it. To obtain the upper lim­it, replace one dig­it in the for­mu­la:

(Pmax — rest­ing pulse)x 0.75 + rest­ing pulse (75% of Pmax)

The result­ing num­bers are your aer­o­bic heart rate range, which must be mon­i­tored dur­ing train­ing with­out stop­ping move­ment. Sub­jec­tive­ly, dur­ing such a work­out you can speak with­out being out of breath.

7. Is it possible to burn fat only in a certain part of the body?

This is impos­si­ble! With the help of aer­o­bics, we can only reduce the sub­cu­ta­neous fat lay­er through­out the body.

Your mus­cles are an incred­i­ble ener­gy-hun­gry machine: when you’re rest­ing, it uses fat as fuel. The min­i­mum body fat lev­el for women is con­sid­ered to be 12 per­cent. More­over, this is not only the sub­cu­ta­neous fat lay­er, but also inter­nal (vis­cer­al) fat — a nec­es­sary com­po­nent of many bio­chem­i­cal reac­tions in the body.

8. What is anaerobic exercise?

Anaer­o­bic load occurs at the lev­el of Pmax = 80–100%. These are weight train­ing exer­cis­es. This load uses not fat as an ener­gy source, but glyco­gen, which is formed in the liv­er and direct­ly in the mus­cles. When per­form­ing such a load, you will no longer be able to speak with­out chok­ing.

Per­form­ing up to 5 rep­e­ti­tions in an exer­cise (Pmax 90–100%) devel­ops only strength. Per­form­ing 5–10 rep­e­ti­tions (Pmax 85–95%) stim­u­lates the growth of mus­cle fibers. Per­form­ing 10–15 rep­e­ti­tions (Pmax 75–85%) devel­ops strength endurance and pro­motes mus­cle hyper­tro­phy.

If you’re just start­ing out, you should start at an inten­si­ty that devel­ops strength endurance.

9. What kind of training is needed if I want to lose weight due to fat?

  • Aer­o­bic train­ing with Rmax 65–75% for 40–60 min­utes at least 3 times a week.
  • Exer­cis­es with weights 2 times a week with Rmax 75–85%.

10. What kind of training is needed if I want to reduce the volume of not only the subcutaneous fat layer, but also overdeveloped muscles?

  • Aer­o­bic train­ing 2 times a week with Pmax 70–80% for 40–60 min­utes.
  • Exer­cis­es with weights 2 times a week with Rmax 75–85%.

11. What kind of training is needed if I want to change the proportions of my body — reduce the volume of some parts of the body due to fat and increase other parts of the body due to muscles?

  • Aer­o­bic train­ing 2 times a week with Pmax 65–75% for 40–60 min­utes.
  • Exer­cis­es with weights 2 times a week:

1) for parts of the body that require an increase in mus­cle vol­ume — train­ing with Pmax 85–95%;

2) on parts of the body that require “dry­ing” — train­ing with Pmax 75–85%.

12. What kind of training is needed if I want to increase muscle size?

Exer­cis­es with weights 2 times a week with Rmax 85–95%. Alter­nat­ing with peri­ods of strength, rest and improve­ment of “venous­ness” (improv­ing blood sup­ply, or “pump­ing” with Pmax 65–75% — these are long-term exer­cis­es, with­out rest, the main goal is to improve the nutri­tion of work­ing mus­cles, increase the cap­il­lary net­work).

Nutrition

1. What is the Basic Exchange (BME)?

BM (Basic Metab­o­lism) is a con­cept nec­es­sary for draw­ing up a per­son­al diet. This is an indi­ca­tor of the ener­gy expen­di­ture required by your body to func­tion at rest.

2. How to determine your OO?

To deter­mine your ener­gy expen­di­ture, your BMR, weigh your­self in the morn­ing on an emp­ty stom­ach, with­out clothes, and fol­low the for­mu­la:

OO = height x 1.8504 + weight x 9.556 + 655 – age x 4.7

3. How does weight loss depend on OO?

As weight decreas­es, OO also decreas­es. There­fore, the diet must be reduced step by step! Because by reduc­ing your diet to the min­i­mum, and then switch­ing to a slight­ly larg­er one, you will gain weight with­out even eat­ing enough calo­ries for your basal metab­o­lism!

The basic metab­o­lism of an adult can slow down due to insuf­fi­cient nutri­tion and dys­func­tion of the endocrine glands, increase dur­ing phys­i­cal activ­i­ty and dis­eases accom­pa­nied by a febrile state, change under the influ­ence of cli­mat­ic fac­tors and for many oth­er rea­sons. OO may vary by 10% on dif­fer­ent days.

4. Does OO depend on age?

After 60 years, OO decreas­es by 7–10%.

5. What is the optimal weight that can be lost in a week without harm?

Weight loss of no more than 500 grams per week means fat loss. Large weight loss means loss of water and mus­cle.

6. How to calculate the required calorie reduction?

Cal­cu­late the reduc­tion in calo­ries in steps, for exam­ple, a month in advance. In this case, sub­sti­tute the real weight into the for­mu­la for cal­cu­lat­ing OO. Next, the val­ue of your Basic Meta­bol­ic Rate must be mul­ti­plied by the coef­fi­cient of your activ­i­ty dur­ing the day — get the calo­rie con­tent of your diet.

The coef­fi­cients are as fol­lows:

  • Men­tal work – 1.4
  • Light phys­i­cal labor – 1.6
  • Light train­ing 2–3 times a week – 1.9
  • Train­ing 3–4 times a week – 2.2
  • Work­outs 4–5 times a week – 2.5

7. What diet do you need if you need to reduce your volume only due to fat?

  • For train­ing days, your diet = OO x 1.6.
  • You should con­sume at least 20 g of fat per day, so 20 g x 9.1 = 182 kcal.
  • You need 1.2 g of pro­tein per 1 kg of weight per day. Thus: calo­rie con­tent of pro­tein = weight x 1.2 x 4.1
  • Car­bo­hy­drate calo­ries = OO x 1.6 – (182 + weight x 1.2 x 4.1)
  • On rest days, mul­ti­ply your RP by a fac­tor of 1.4.

8. What kind of diet is needed if you need to reduce the volume of not only the subcutaneous fat layer, but also overdeveloped muscles?

  • For train­ing days, your diet = OO x 1.9.
  • You should con­sume at least 20 g of fat per day, thus: 20 g x 9.1 = 182 kcal of fat.
  • Pro­tein needs 1 g per 1 kg of weight per day. Thus: calo­rie con­tent of pro­tein = weight x 1 x 4.1
  • Caloric con­tent of Car­bo­hy­drates = OO x 1.9 – (182 + weight x 1 x 4.1)
  • On rest days, mul­ti­ply your RP by a fac­tor of 1.4.

Reduce calo­ries by reduc­ing the amount of car­bo­hy­drates.

9. What kind of diet is needed if you need to change the proportions of the body, reducing the volume of some parts of the body due to fat and increasing other parts of the body due to muscles?

  • For aer­o­bic train­ing days, your diet = OO x 1.6.
  • You should con­sume at least 20 g of fat per day, thus: 20 g x 9.1 = 182 kcal of fat.
  • Pro­tein required is 1.2 g per 1 kg of weight per day. Thus: calo­rie con­tent of pro­tein = weight x 1.2 x 4.1
  • Calo­rie con­tent of Car­bo­hy­drates = OO x 1.6 – (182 + weight x 1.2 x 4.1).
  • For weight train­ing days, your diet = OO x 2.2.
  • Pro­tein needs 2 g per 1 kg of weight per day. Thus: calo­rie con­tent of pro­tein = weight x 2 x 4.1
  • On rest days, mul­ti­ply your RP by a fac­tor of 1.4.

Reduce calo­ries by reduc­ing the amount of car­bo­hy­drates.

10. What kind of diet is needed if you need to increase muscle size?

  • For train­ing days, your diet = OO x 2.2.
  • You should con­sume at least 20 g of fat per day, thus: 20 g x 9.1 = 182 kcal of fat.
  • Pro­tein required is 1.6 g per 1 kg of weight per day. Thus: calo­rie con­tent of pro­tein = weight x 1.6 x 4.1.
  • Caloric con­tent of Car­bo­hy­drates = OO x 2.2 – (182 + weight x 2 x 4.1)
  • On rest days, mul­ti­ply your RP by a fac­tor of 1.4.

Reduce calo­ries by reduc­ing the amount of car­bo­hy­drates.

11. What is a sports diet?

Sports nutri­tion is very dif­fer­ent from reg­u­lar health diets.

On a sports diet:

  • A large amount of flu­id is absorbed to replen­ish its reserves after gru­el­ing work­outs. You need to drink before train­ing, in small sips dur­ing train­ing and always after. You can trust iso­ton­ic drinks. Whether you are flush­ing your body well can be seen by the col­or of your urine (it should be pale yel­low).
  • A larg­er amount of pro­tein is con­sumed than is usu­al­ly rec­om­mend­ed by nutri­tion­ists.
  • you con­sume more calo­ries, regard­less of whether you gain or lose weight; large expen­di­tures of ener­gy with­out appro­pri­ate “recharge” quick­ly lead to exhaus­tion of the body.
  • Meals before and after work­outs are sched­uled minute by minute.

12. How long after eating should you wait before aerobic training to burn fat and when can you eat after it?

Before you need to abstain from food for 1–2 hours before train­ing.

After such a work­out, you can and should eat.

13. How long after eating should you wait before weight training to reduce muscle size, and when can you eat afterward?

You can eat com­plex car­bo­hy­drates in small quan­ti­ties (about 100–150 g) in 1–1.5 hours.

After train­ing, it is prefer­able to eat pro­tein foods.

14. How long after eating should you wait before resistance training to increase muscle size and/or strength, and when can you eat afterward?

You need to eat com­plex car­bo­hy­drates (approx. 150–200 g) in 1–1.5 hours. After train­ing, you need to have a full meal rich in car­bo­hy­drates and pro­teins.

15. How often can you eat during the day?

Divide your entire dai­ly diet into 3–6 meals, each of which will def­i­nite­ly include some amount of pro­tein.

16. Which carbohydrates are healthy?

Car­bo­hy­drates are dis­tin­guished by their glycemic index, i.e. by glu­cose con­tent. Foods with a high glycemic index sharply increase insulin and glu­cose lev­els in the blood. These prod­ucts are con­ven­tion­al­ly called “sim­ple”. Prod­ucts with a low­er glu­cose con­tent have a less dra­mat­ic, but longer-last­ing effect on insulin lev­els; they are con­ven­tion­al­ly called “com­plex”. At the same time, foods with a high glycemic index quick­ly replen­ish glyco­gen reserves after phys­i­cal activ­i­ty — this is their advan­tage. Here’s how some foods rank accord­ing to the glycemic index:

  • High — bagels, cakes, car­rots, bananas, baked pota­toes.
  • Medi­um — rice, grapes, pop­corn, beets, crack­ers.
  • Low — spaghet­ti, plums, apples, buck­wheat.

If com­plex car­bo­hy­drates are eat­en along with pro­tein, then their effect on insulin lev­els will not be as dra­mat­ic.

17. How much and what proteins should you consume?

Nutri­tion­ists’ rec­om­men­da­tion is 1 g of pro­tein per kg of weight. This amount increas­es for ath­letes up to 4 g. Pro­tein prod­ucts have dif­fer­ent val­ues ​​in terms of amino acid com­po­si­tion and the qual­i­ty of its absorp­tion. Egg white is con­sid­ered to be the clos­est to human and the most com­plete amino acid com­po­si­tion. Fur­ther, as the qual­i­ty of the pro­tein decreas­es: fish, poul­try, soy pro­tein, lean meat, low-fat cot­tage cheese. Sports pro­tein shakes can be con­sid­ered an excel­lent source of pro­tein.

18. Should I avoid fat?

They are vital for the cells of your body and, more­over, are direct­ly relat­ed to the ener­gy sup­ply of work­outs.

You already know, of course, but I’ll still repeat: con­sume less sat­u­rat­ed fats of ani­mal ori­gin. Replace them with healthy fats, say, olive oil, nuts, seeds.

Rest

What is proper rest?

At the very begin­ning, we said that any train­ing load should be opti­mal. Fig­u­ra­tive­ly speak­ing, you should not try to become more beau­ti­ful at the expense of your health. It is nec­es­sary to get enough sleep, rest enough between train­ing days, between exer­cis­es. How much and how to rest depends on your abil­i­ty to recov­er.